Brett Manning explains Hard Palate 0:22

Hard Palate

[hard pal·ate] noun \ˈhärd ˈpa-lət\

The hard anterior (front) portion of the palate [roof of the mouth] separating the oral and nasal cavities, consisting of a bony framework and covering membranes

Mix, Mixed Voice, Mixing

[mix] noun \miks\

Any particular blend of two or more resonating cavities. Some different types of mix include, Head Mix, Chest Mix, Pharyngeal Mix, Light Mix, Hard Mix etc. and also commonly referred to as the middle voice or mixing.


[co·or·di·na·tion] noun kōˌôrdnˈāSHən

Building coordination is maintaining medial cord compression throughout your entire range from chest voice to the head voice and beyond.


[mar·ca·to] noun \mahr-kah-toh\

1. (Classical Music) (of notes) heavily accented

Brett Manning explains Compression 0:22


[com·press·ion] noun \kuhm-presh-uhn\

Is the balance of cord tension and air flow. The singer will spend much time trying to master the freedom of his or her voice. This is done by a balanced compression.

Brett Manning explains Whistle Register 0:27

Whistle Register

[whist·le register] noun \hwis-uhl redj-iss-tuhr\

The highest of all the registers. An extension upward of Head Voice to a thin, whistle-sounding register. The cords are zipped up to around 2/3 of their length, leaving only the top 1/3rd or 1/4th free to vibrate. The smaller vibrating surface produces the thinner sound quality.

Brett Manning explains Warm Up / Warmup 0:21

Warm Up / Warmup

[warm up] noun \wawrm-uhp\

A series of exercises meant to prepare muscles to perform. In singing, a series of exercises to ‘wake up’ the voice, stretching and engaging the vocal cords.

Brett Manning explains Nasal Cavity 0:23

Nasal Cavity

[na·sal cav·i·ty] noun \ˈnā-zəl ˈkav-ət-ē\

The open area above and behind the nose. Its primary purpose is to condition the air taken in during the respiratory process, not as a resonator. However, when singing in pure head voice, the strongest sensations of vibrations can be felt in the nasal cavity. The nasal cavity does become a resonator, along with the pharynx, when producing the nasal consonants of ‘M’, ‘N’, ‘Ng’, and when singing in a pharyngeal (nasal) mix.

Brett Manning explains Legato 0:28


[le·ga·to] noun \luh-gah-toh\

To play or sing groups of notes smoothly and without separate attacks. Contrast with Staccato.

Brett Manning explains Connection 1:10


[con·nect·ion] noun \kuh-nek-shon\

As pertaining to singing: Having no audible breaks in the vocal range, and maintaining cord closure (connection) throughout entire voice. “Basically connected” is when the breaks are hidden through vowel modification or other ‘quick fixes’. “Truly connected” is when the voice has learned to maneuver through bridges and transitions and truly has no breaks.

Brett Manning explains Adduction 0:24


[ad·duc·tion] noun \ə-ˈdək-shən, a-\

The process of bringing two parts of the body towards the center of the body. In relation to singing, it refers to bringing the vocal cords together to vibrate and cause phonation. The lateral cricoarytenoid muscles are the main adducting (cord closing) muscles in the vocal process.

Brett Manning explains Falsetto 0:19


[fal·set·to] noun \fawl-set-oh\

A debatable register because it is not a grouping of notes with similar qualities, but rather a cord coordination. It resonates similar to the female ʻlegitʼ or ʻclassicalʼ Head Voice, and in males is sometimes mistaken for Head Voice. However, Falsetto is characterized by a breathy tone and can occur anywhere in the vocal range for males or females. The lack of intensity is due to the lack of cord closure.

High C

[high c] noun \hahy si\

C6, or the sixth C found on a Grand Piano. The coveted high note for Soprano singers. Generally thought of as being the ceiling for the female voice. The Male or Tenor High C is exactly one octave below at C5.

Brett Manning explains Digastric Muscle 1:35

Digastric Muscle

[di·gas·tric mus·cle] noun \-dī-gas-tric ˈməs-əls\

Located under the jaw. Not responsible for the pitch making process, but rather hinders it. It is an outer muscle of the larynx used for swallowing. The relaxation of the digastric muscle is key in allowing the inner muscles of the larynx to do their job and for the singer to find freedom.


[no·ta·tion] noun \noh-tey-shuhn\

The method of writing down music for performance or reproduction.


[op·er·a] noun \op-er-uh\

A drama set to music for voices and orchestra, presented with costumes and sets. It usually includes arias, choruses and recitatives. Singers of this genre are known for their high vocal technical ability and dramatic flair.


[for·mant] noun \fawr-muhnt\

The spectral peaks of the sound spectrum often associated with the ability to have resonance in the voice that can be heard, unamplified, easily over orchestras. There are multiple levels of vocal formants a singer could potentially achieve.

Spinal Cord

[spi·nal cord] noun \spī´nal ‘kord\

A long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue and support cells that extends from the brain. The brain and spinal cord together make up the Central Nervous System. Subluxation, or the degree of spinal alignment disfunction, affects singers dramatically.


[con·so·nance] noun \kon-suh-nuhns\

Combination of notes that produces a feeling of rest. When no further harmonic progression is needed to ‘finish’ the phrase. Consonant intervals are Major and Minor thirds and sixths, perfect fourths, fifths, and octaves. Contrast with Dissonance.


[tem·per·a·ment] noun \tem-pruh-muhnt\

1) The tuning of a keyboard instrument so that the instrument may be played in all keys without further tuning. 2) A system of tuning where intervals are altered from those that are acoustically pure.


[tem·po] noun \tem-poh\

The speed of a section of a composition or the speed of a complete piece.


[form] noun \fawrm\

The organization and structure of a composition.


[con·so·nant] noun \kon-suh-nuhnt\

A speech sound or letter that stops or hinders the airflow by the tongue, lips, or teeth. Any sound other than a pure vowel.


[in·ter·lude] noun \in-ter-lood\

An instrumental passage or piece of music performed between phrases, verses, songs, or acts of a drama.


[ton·ic] noun \ton-ik\

The first tone of a scale. Also see Root.